Ecarin is a snake venom (Echis carinatus) that directly activates prothrombin to meizothrombin This action is not dependent on phospholipid membranes and . Objective(s): Echis carinatus is one of the venomous snakes in Iran. The venom of Iranian Echis carinatus is a rich source of protein with various factors affecting . In this research, the effects of Echis carinatus crude venom and its fractions on mice were analyzed. Moreover, the results of coagulation tests.
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To receive news and publication carinarus for Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, enter your email address in the box below. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Licensewhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The objective of the study is to investigate the anti-snake venom activities of a local plant, Hibiscus aethiopicus L.
The results of evaluating the systemic acute toxicity of the H. All guinea pigs when treated with venoms E. All guinea pigs treated with venom E. The caribatus of this study reflects that the extract of H. Envenoming resulting from snake bites remains the most neglected public health issues in many countries, particularly in poor rural communities living in the tropics.
Generally envenoming by Echis snake vipers is responsible for several clinical complications of severe systemic and local pathology. Although an intravenous administration of antivenom, prepared from IgG of venom-immunised horses or sheep, is an effective treatment for systemic envenoming [ 3 ], the clinical consensus is that antivenom is of limited effectiveness against the effects of local envenoming that develop rapidly after a bite [ 4 ].
Such effects include severe pain, oedema, localized haemorrhage, and necrosis [ 5 ] which often results in permanent scarring and deformity. Despite ecis smaller size, F ab2 2 and Fab fragments of IgG are also ineffective carinatjs the local effects of envenoming, whether administered by intravenous or snakee routes [ 89 ].
Other limitations of the antivenom s also referred to the variability of snake venom. Venom constitution within the same snake species can present considerable geographical variations [ 10 — 12 ], including a diverse in conformity with interpopulational, seasonal, ontogenetic, and individual factors [ 13 ]. Therefore, antivenom made against venom of an assured species may not be sufficient against envenomation of the same snake species [ 14 ].
Research to develop a treatment for local envenoming ecchis different species as well as among the same species from different areas will be of clinical carinwtus and should focus on venkm application of natural [ 15 ] or synthetic inhibitors [ 16 ] against snake venom potent molecules.
Plant-derived drugs remain important resource to combat serious diseases.
The crinatus study aims to study the antisnake venom activity of a local plant, Hibiscus aethiopicus L. Although Hibiscus aethiopicus L. The whole plant of Hibiscus aethiopicus carinatuw collected with assistance of a traditional healer, from Bani-Hushaiesh. Authentication and the taxonomic identification of plant materials was confirmed by Dr. One kilogram of the fresh echls was dried under mild sunshine. The dried sample was pulverized and stored in plastic bags.
The obtained ethanol extract was filtered and evaporated using a rotary evaporator and freeze dryer to give the crude dried extract. The venom of E. The guinea pigs were given different dosages echiz investigate the lethal dose.
Carintus animals were observed for behaviour change, continuously for a period of two weeks after such administration. Observation was conducted hourly at day 1, and thereafter at 4—6 times per day. At the end of the observation period, animals were sacrificed and dissected. Histopathology examination of their eyes, liver, lung, and spleen was performed.
The fifth group served as a control and received an equivalent volume of distilled water. Guinea pigs were observed regularly over a period of 24 hours for signs of acute toxicity and death. Group 1 of 3 guinea pigs was injected with E.
Group 2 was divided into 12 equal subgroups G2. All of the subgroups catinatus injected subcutaneously with a mixture of E. All animals were observed over 24 hours. At the end of the observation period, animals were sacrificed, and their skins were dissected to examine the haemorrhage neutralisation efficacy of the H.
Group 1 of 4 guinea pigs was injected with E. Group 2 was divided into 6 equal varinatus G2. Animals 14 at each interval time were sacrificed, and their skins were dissected to examine the neutralisation veenom of the extract after 24 and 32 hours, respectively. The plasma coagulation property was determined according to the method of Theakston and Reid [ 18 ] with minor modification.
For inhibition examination, the venom xnake was preincubated with the extract at different concentrations i. The oedema-inducing activity was assayed according to the method of Vishwanath et ecbis.
Group 1 of 3 guinea pigs was injected in the right footpads with 3x minimum oedema dose MED 7. The left footpads received saline, as controls. Legs were cut off at the ankle joint after 6 hours. Group 2 for inhibition examination was divided into 8 equal subgroups 3 guinea pig in each were injected subcutaneously with the venom sample that was preincubated with the extract at different concentrations No abnormal behaviour was observed. Animals showed normal body weight increase during the two weeks period.
Inspection of the eyes, liver, lung, and spleen showed no extraordinary signs. The results when compared to a general acute toxicity index were normal, and no acute toxicity was observed. Furthermore, guinea pigs dosed intra-peritoneally with H.
All guinea pigs treated injected subcutaneously with venoms E. All guinea pigs treated with venoms E.
However, after 24 hours Figure 2 Ab—dall 6 animals showed similar carinahus pattern with the control Figure 2 Ba1 and Figure 2 B a value of 0. The extract was found to inhibit, dose dependently, the procoagulant activity of the E. A progressive increased clotting time resulting in anticoagulation was recorded Figure 3.
Snake venom of Echis carinatus sochureki – Latoxan
Toxicity studies in a mouse model revealed the following. The MED was found echiz be 7. The 3x MED found to cause an oedema of. The venom-induced haemorrhagic oedema was also inhibited dose dependently by the extract. At a ratio of venom to extract of 1: Plants constitute rich sources of novel compounds with a variety of pharmacological activities.
Therefore, experimental validation of the traditional use of plants is important and can facilitate the development of low-cost phytotherapeutic agents [ 9 ]. Plants used as remedy for snakebite abound in literature venoj 20 — 23 ]. However, many of the reported studies lack detailed scientific investigation, which is needed in the development of medicinal agents from plants [ 20 — 22 ].
In this study we have used H. To snakd knowledge no scientific reports on H. Therefore, this study represents the second report about H. Carintaus contrast to our results reported in the previous work [ 17 ], the oral route when compared to a general acute toxicity index showed normal with no extraordinary symptoms as well as no acute toxicity.
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This was supported further by the biochemical analysis as shown in Table 1. However, with intra-peritoneal route doses, guinea pigs were initially dull with significantly reduced movement for about 20—30 minutes.
In the subsequent experiments we used the H. It was interesting to note that results of the evaluation assays of antisnake venom activity showed that H. This was clearly illustrated in Figure 1 Aa—k. Results from the oral administration of the extract 3 hours prior to venom injection were significant and showed future promising Figure 2 A. In this assay we examined the neutralisation efficacy of the extract using two prospects based on time intervals of 16 and 32 hours, respectively.
Although such comparison between the two assays is not adequate as in the first assay, a close contact between the extract and venom was achieved to give a maximal neutralizing effect.
Therefore, further investigation of the absorption rate should be performed. Moreover, this result can also suggest that having the extract before envenomation can act as a prophylactic agent. Ecarin is an extensively characterized metalloprotease present in E. This property of E. In addition, ccarinatus also cleaved human fibrinogen and dissolved the fibrin clot [ 27 ].
Snake venom of Echis carinatus sochureki
The prothrombin converting and fibrinogenolytic thrombin-like activity of ecarin appears to be responsible for the procoagulant activity of the venom. Interestingly in this study we found that the extract can inhibit dose dependently the procoagulant activity of the E. Since ecarin appears to be the principal procoagulant agent of E.
This was confirmed by early studies where several anticoagulants have been isolated and studied extensively from this venom [ 2428 — 31 ]. In addition to the coagulation assay, we examined the neutralisation of the extract against the oedema inducing activity of the E.
The result was significant, and the extract was found to inhibit dose dependently the venom-induced haemorrhagic oedema. In several experimental and clinical trials, it has been demonstrated that antivenoms are of limited value to stop oedema progression within the first 12—24 hours of treatment, while they are highly efficient in restoring blood coagulation status within the same time interval [ 32 — 34 ].
Moreover, the rapid neutralization of venom in the bloodstream does not guarantee the halting of oedema progression within a short time. Therefore, in this study, we report for first time that the extract of the H. However, this finding was based on in vitro testing, i. Despite these protective effects of the plant extract of the H. The extract did protect animals challenged with local haemorrhage of the E. However, haemorrhage induction was significantly reduced and or fully neutralised with the increase of the extract concentration and time, in contrast with the preincubation assay represented by Figure 1.
This obviously would need further investigations for both systemic and local evaluation. Snake bite remains a public health problem in many countries even though; it is difficult to be precise about the actual number of cases. It is estimated that the true incidence of snake envenomation could exceed 5 million per year and causing aboutdeaths each year, predominantly within poor communities living in rural areas of countries in Southeast Asia and Africa.